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Using the Beneficial Effects of Food in Cancer

To all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in the and all the creatures that move along the ground everything that has breath of life in it.I give every green Plant for food. And so it

The benencial effects of food be maximized by manipulating the contents of our diets. In other Words, use nature CO stabilize our bodies. Unlike genetic factors, diet is easily modifiable and can therefore alter the cancer risk-Foods can fight infections, improve immunity ana elevate mood-doing it all naturally. A large amount of data has established that eating certain types of foods regularly may have a preventive role in cancer development.41 Second, once cancer has developed, it is possible that consuming these foods may help us recover from the disease as well as from the effeces of treatment.

This is a bit like exercise-thirty minutes daily improves life expectancy by So per cent A 2012 report from the American Cancer Society strongly suggested that diet exercise and weight control increases survival times ana could even keep us cancer-free.42 Exercise keeps weight in check and increases circulation, resulting in the removal of toxins that may have accumulated. It also improves mood and sleep besides reducing anxiety.

Recent data Coming out of King's College, London, suggests that exercising suficiently as ase Prevents the immune from System declining and Protects the elderly are against exercise infections.+3 The benefits of refected both the body muscle mass and mind, maintaining the

Foods to Fight Depression

The World Health Organizacion WHIO) rates depression as a significant contributor to the global burden of diseases in the Western world, i.e. predisposing us to many other diseases. It is characterized by a general feeling of being low loss of appetite, disturbed sleep and an agitated state of mind. It can be considered both as the cause and as an effect of cancer The quession then arises can diet play a role in mood elevation

Yes, it can Serotonin neurotransmitter ca chemical messenger that transmits signals from one nerve cell to another responsible for the proper functioning of the brain. le maintains equilibrium in the brain cells. Its absence affects appetice, mood, sleep Pattern and sexual desire. A drop in serotonin levels may be one of the causes for depression. There are certain types of foods that serotonin- they are nature's antidepressants-

L-tryptophan is an amino that boosts serotonin levels in the blood and subsequently in the brain. It is present in whey Protein, Cottage cheese, eggs, sesame seeds, oats, mangoes, ananas, bread, pasta, Sweet Potatoes walnuts, chickpeas, Poultry. Other natural antidepressants include Omega-3 (abundant in fish like saloon, sardines, mackerel, and in fax seeds) vitamin B6, B12 and folic acid: and vitamin D (the sunlight which is produced in the skin from cholesterol. In , winters, cholesterol interferes with the formation of vitamin D and therefore, sunlight depression usually worsens during these months, particularly in the estern countries. Finally, balanced blood levels are sugar necessary for proper functioning of the brain. Any Auctuation in blood sugar is considered the single most important factor in mood disorders.

Foods to Boost the Immune System

For fight against cancer, the immune system is vital. It's efficient functioning determines the state of our health. It defends the body against pathogenic organisms like bacteria and viruses, and removes both dead and abnormal cells. Immune system dysfunction due to poor nutrition is associated with increased risk of infection. Simply Puty proper nutrition gives fire Power to the defending army-the immune system.

To slow Stop the progress of cancer requires galvanizing the immune System. This clear the inflammation ana renove the mutated abnormal cells. If the cancer has established itself in the body and treatment is essential, the revitalization of the natural defence mechanism of the body becomes crucial to fight the cancer. multi- pronged attack including the activated immune system, radiation and/or surgery chemotherapy is most likely to beat the Odds.

The immune system bas Soluble Components: antibodies and cellular components like lymphocytes and tissue macrophages to fight infection and remove damaged to generated che exposed process. The tissues most These pathogenic organisms are the skin and the intestine. from the world are the body's natural barriers, separating us rich in immune of pathogens outside. Both these tissues are of other similar cells which can further signal recruitment cells when the need arises.

These barriers are kept in perfect health by che food eat Supportive foods are vitamin A, B, E and C, and food containing Ebre. Fibre in the food is fermented into SCFA in the large intestine. This nourishes the colonic mucosal lining, and adds buik to che intestinal content, removing toxins and waste matter by ensuring complete evacuation. The body's dietary requirement of 6bre is 20-30 grams per day.

Foods rich in Proteins acids, antioxidants, essential fatty in perfect vitamins and minerals keep the immune system Sreen vegetables health. Eggs, Gsh, tofu, nuts, leeks and Fruits a and Provide the daily requirement of these essentials. vegetables rich in antioxidants boost the immune system. On the other hand, processed foods and food contaminated by Pesticides or toxic metals like lead and mercury are immuno- suppressive. Some food additives, particularly emulsifiers like lecithin used to keep Water and oil mixed in margarine, baked foods and ice cream, destroy vitamins like B1, C and E present in the food and depress immunity- Mono and di- glycerides used in peanut butter act similarly.

Link between Immunity Depression

There is Link between neurotransmitters released in response CO emotions and the activity of the immune system. Natural killer cells NK cells) are lymphocytesthat can directly destroy TUnour cells, and are the first line of defence against cancer. They were found to be e more active in women with breast cancer who could better face the disease Psychologically than in those who sank into depression.45 In another study about Women with ovarian cancer, it was found that those who felt loved and supported, with higher morale, had better functional NK cells, compared to those who felt depressed, alone and abandoned.46 There is truth the expression that the battle against cancer like a battles, is and lost the mind.

Ketogenic Diet and Fasting

The ketogenic diet has been used in the past as a therapeutic tool- - This diet bas a fat content of 90 Per moderate to low Proteins of 8 per cent, and very low carbohydrates, comprising 2 Per cent of the total calorie intake. The ketogenic diet was found to be beneficial for epilepsy, when followed for short wo to three weekly courses. Recently, it bas been used as an adjuvant (accompaniment) to chemotherapy. Its most publicized success comes from a report of two Women with advanced malignant brain tumour, where their tumours regressed by 21 per while on the ketogenic diet.47

THE KETOGENIC DIET
  • Breakfast:eggs with without bacon.
  • Lunch and Dinner: tuna salad/grilled fish tandoori fish mincemeat cutlets shellfish poultry Served with cheese/paneer and lentils. AL Cooking is done in butter
  • Vegetables Serve a With the meal are green beans/ spinachlettuce/broccoli cauliflower/bell peppers
  • Snacks Nuts and seeds in full cream yoghurt berries of various types served With cream
How It Works

The rationale behind this diet is minimizing the carbohydrate intake replacing it with healthy fats and moderate amounts of protein. Normal cells of the body have the metabolic ability to adapt from using glucose to using ketone bodies for their energy requirements. Ketone bodies are breakdown Products of fatty acids-they are produced in the liver during periods of starvation or while on a carbohydrate restrictive diet. Cancer cells lack this ability to metabolize ketone bodies and, as a result, they are effectively starved.

Additionally, lipid the metabolism breakdown of diet forces in a ketogenic - cells to fat norm derive their since mitochondrial metabolism. But cancer energy from have dysfunctional mitochondria, cells they face further stress, being unable to utilize ketone bodies, which results in cancer celi death. Proponents of the ketogenic diet have labelled cancer as a mitochondrial-metabolic disease. The mitochondria are the power generators of the ce11 and can be damaged by inherited mutations, or by environmental factors and t toxins. The last word on this type of diet has not been written; though understandably, it is difficult for patients to follow.

Fasting is akin a ketogenic diet and it bas been found to enhance the responsiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Fasting cycles are reported to retard tumour growth in non-diabetic Patients.

Methods of Cooking in the Fight Against Cancer

Cooking methods vary - -Some are healthier than other rs. Generally, slow cooking or cooking at lower temperatures is an ideal way to cook. Sound methods (requiring little to no extra oil or fat include the following:

  • baking And oven roastings
  • browning ingredients first in a Pan, then Cooking covered with small quantities of liquid;
  • steaming, which requires the ingredients to be placed in a perforated utensil over simmering waters;
  • sauté-ing or stir-frying which uses small amounts of Oil while stirring Constantly tili the vegetables are cooked.

Cooking methods that should be avoided are broiling and grilling thin pieces of meat exposed to direct heat over a charcoal grill or direct flame. Al high-temperature cooking Produces chemicals like heterocyclic amines ana Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that known carcinogens. Microwave cooking in a microwave-safe dish involves rapid Cooking at high temperatures-although it uses less oil, it is a questionable method because of the high temperatures attained.

Recommendations Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat intake Plants

The key strategy ia using food for cancer protection is based On harnessing the plants' OWN mechanisms of self- preservation-used against fungi, bacteria and insects- -to Protect ourselves. Unlike animals, plants are unable to nove away from the Pests that attack them so, over time, they have developed many safeguards for their survival. If plants are eaten in their natural form they lend these Protective effects to humans.

While there single plant that can keep us cancer- free, Combining many types of fruits ana vegetables, with their different defence abilities acting Synergistically, could be hugely beneficial. Thus, a well-oiled immune System can prevent the cancer cells from taking root. Additionally, eating the right quantities of food in order to maintain bealthy weight is equally important. Knowledge and its implementation are central -recognizing the protective effects of the various types Of food adds new dimension eating.

Meats

Urbanization and bas the economic prosperity increased demand for meats. One of the comnonest red meats in India is referred nnuttOn- Both goat meat and lamb are two. The to as mutton. Goat meat is the healthier of the beef and other common are chicken, Pork.

Chicken farms are not always hygienic-birds are seldom free range, they are often kept in crowded coops to increase production, fed a diet to rapidly enhance growth, and given antibiotics to prevent infection. On the other hand, goats are free-range and graze on fresh vegetation. Goat meat is lean and easy to digest, contains high potassium content and is low on sodium, when compared to other meats. Goat meat is high in HDL (good cholesterol) and low in fat and LDL (bad cholesterol). In fact, it has the lowest number of calories in comparison to beef, chicken, pork or lamb. Three ounces of goat meat (about 90 grams) has 122 calories, while chicken has 162. Pork has the highest calorie content.

Carbohydrates

Of the daily caloric requirement, 45-65 per cent should come from carbohydrates. The body has a carbohydrate reserve in the form of glycogen stored in the liver and the muscle—this helps maintain normal blood sugar levels. In the absence of adequate carbohydrate intake, glycogen from the stores is broken down, first, to provide for the energy needs of the body. This is followed by the breakdown of amino-acids from the muscle, resulting in loss of muscle mass, and the breakdown of fats resulting in weight loss.

Proteins

1 cup water, half tablespoons of sattu,roasted cumin seed powder and 1/2 teaspoon Mix well and drink. Of the daily caloric requirement, 10–25 per cent should come from proteins. They provide amino-acids which are the building blocks for tissue repair, hormone and enzyme synthesis, and for maintaining the immune system. Animal sources of protein are high in saturated fats and have no fibre or vitamin C. Plant proteins, on the other hand, from grain and legumes, contain both fibre and vitamin C. Sattu is a drink made from the flour of roasted gram and, at times, of roasted barley. It is a poor man's super food. It is drunk as a sherbet by body builders, gymnasts and wrestlers after a full workout. It has 20 per cent protein by Recipe for Sattu Sherbet: weight and is a good source of lime juice. iron, calcium, manganese and , fibre and is easy to digest. It pinch each of black salt, is consumed in Bihar, Punjab, Utter Pradesh, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh, either as a drink or as stuffing in roti or puri, or as litti chokha (sattu stuffed ball of flour baked in a coal fire). The protein content of sattu is equivalent to that of whey. It is considered effective in osteoporosis.

Fats

Fat intake should not exceed 30 per cent of the daily caloric intake. Fats are essential for maintaining the cells, skin and hair, for hormone synthesis, and for providing the body with fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). Surplus calories consumed are stored in the body as fat. Fats contain fatty acids. The source of fat may be animals or plants. Animal sources are rich in saturated fats while vegetable oils contain unsaturated fats as well.

Fatty acids

There are two essential fatty acids required by the body, since these are not manufactured by us. They are derived from the diet and include alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6). Omega-3 and omega-6 are important for the normal functioning of all tissues of the body. Adequate intake of these fatty acids results in many health benefits. The main advantages of these essential fatty acids are that they maintain the health of the cardio-vascular system, help foetal growth, proper growth and development of children, brain development, and pain relief. Omega-3 has a crucial role in cancer prevention and possibly, cancer cure. The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 in the diet should be 1:1 or higher. 48 A higher ratio is associated with lower risk of breast cancer.49 For this reason, it is best to avoid diets that are rich in oils, consisting of processed foods—these are high in omega-6 but low in omega-3. Though both omega-3 and omega-6 are found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, vegetable oils and legumes, the richest sources of omega-3 are flax seeds, canola, walnuts and soya bean. Fish is another good source of essential fatty acids. However, it is also rich in cholesterol, and contain toxins if the water they breed in is contaminated.

Cooking Oil

It is often advised that more than one type of oil should be used as a cooking medium, depending on the dish or the method of cooking. Oils with a more balanced ratio of omega-3/omega-6 are more suitable, like light olive oil and flax seed oil. Other oils, like canola, are high in omega-3 but canola is sourced from genetically modified seeds, which need further testing. Sunflower oil has a high smoking point, is rich in vitamin E but contains only omega-6. Coconut oil is rich in saturated fats and raises total cholesterols. Peanut oil is a good all-purpose oil. Mustard oil contains erucic acid and is banned in the US and Europe because it causes nutritional deficiencies and heart lesions in animal experiments. Rice bran oil has a high smoking point and is high in unsaturated fats and antioxidants.

The decision of selecting a cooking medium is influenced by many factors besides taste preferences:

  • Firstly, the content of saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats in the oils. Unsaturated fats eaten in moderation and replacing saturated or transfats can help lower cholesterol and risk of heart disease.
  • Secondly, high smoking Point, since at this point a lot of nutrients are lost and some foods become Potentially barmful with the formation of aldehydes, which toxic for the liver.
  • The process used for the extraction Of oil is crucial. Cold pressed oil is extracted at low temperatures with no loss of nutrients; using expeller and squeezing is superior to chemical extraction.

The emphasis should be on increasing plant and animal sources of omega-3 in the diet and decreasing sources of omega-6. Omega-3 inhibits COX-2 enzymes, which are inflammatory harmful to the nuclear membranes of cells, while omega-6 is pro-inflammatory. This may play a role in malignancy as chronic inflammation is linked to The role of Cox-2 inhibitors is an area of active research in cancer therapy. Colonic cancer is associated with high levels of Cox-2 in 85 per cent of the cases- In a study of breast cancer it was found that women who were cancer free had higher levels of omega-3 their breast tissue. Similar fadings were reported for prostate cancer. Other Compounds that inhibit COX-2 enzymes are aspirin, aloe ginger, garlic and turmeric.

Recommendations: Corrective Dietary Measures

The preferred environment of developing cancer cells differs from that of normal healthy cells. When the environment is perfect, it Provides all the ingredients that are conducive to parasites. The cancer growth, allowing them to behave like trick is to disrupt their preferred environment.

Where normal cells derive their energy from carbohydrates in the Presence of Oxygen, cancer cells produce energy in the absence of Oxygen. This anaerobic type of metabolism which takes place milieu an internal within milieux cells maintains of low PH1 in which cancer cells thrive. Therefore, both factors -low Oxygen levels ana low PHI pro-cancer factors as they promote the growth of tumour cells. Some studies have shown that a high Oxygen of 95 per tension cent is lethal for cancer cells, without any effect normal tissues. This is the rationale behind the use of hyperbaric Oxygen for treating cancer.

On the other hand, eating diet rich in carbohydrates results in the sugars being rapidly broken down by cancer cells in the absence Of Oxygen to produce lactic acid-the resultant low PH promotes tunour growth.

Having understood that cancer cells have traits that can be Countered by the diet, the corrective measures that need to be introduced into the diet are two-fold: first, remove harmful Substances from the daily foods and second, introduce foods that have a protective effect.

Removing harmful Substances from Our Diet At the individual level:

Giving UP smoking or chewing Of tobacco are proven methods for the prevention of some types of cancer. Likewise, reducing the intake of refined sugar White four and fat- which are pro-inflammatory, low in tbre, and promote obesity-reduces the incidence Of Colon Cancer. Avoiding cakes, Indian Sweets, chocolates, fizzy drinks, sugary and processed foOds can help. Common salt can Cause oestrogenic effect on the cells. WORF States that both salt and salt-preserved foods are associated with an increase in the risk of stomach cancer. 50 Therefore, all processed, canned food, dried salted meats, sausages, pickles and Chinese food rich MSG Should be avoided.

At the agricultural levels:

Better regulation Of the farming sector may pay dividends. Organic farming relying fertilizers Such Compost manure, vermi-compost, green manure and bone meal, with restrictions on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides may go a long way in improving the safety of food. Once the crop is harvested, proper storage and a good delivery system is required.

Fruits are generally picked slightly raw when they are firmer and easier to transport. However, their natural ripening process, which is slow and associated with a change of colour, softening of texture and the development of fragrance, is hastened through carcinogenic artificial agents (compromising on the colour, taste and fragrance). Calcium carbide is the most commonly used artificial ripening agent in India. It is banned in many countries as it is a known carcinogen and contains traces of arsenic and phosphorus, making it a health hazard. For artificial ripening, packets of calcium carbide are placed in the box containing the fruit. In the presence of moisture from the fruit, acetylene gas is generated, which is similar to ethylene—a natural ripening agent produced by the fruit. This compound is used by retailers to ripen bananas, mangoes, jackfruit and litchi.

Introducing Foods that Have a Protective Effect

Foods can act indirectly against cancer through their anti- inflammatory and mood elevation effects, as well as directly, by preventing new blood vessel formation, providing antioxidants and stimulating the immune system. Cognizance of these anti-cancer properties can lend our diet a (cancer) preventive role.

Using these protective aspects, I have divided food according to their most potent properties into four main groups: anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, stimulants of the immune system, and anti-cancer. However, there may be considerable overlap in these groups as some foods provide multiple safeguards, including additional properties like anti-depressant effects and their vitamin and fibre content.

Foods with Anti-inflammatory Effects

It is an established fact that chronic prolonged inflammations become Progress to cancer Over time- Consuming foods anti-inflammatory effects turns the clock back and healing, Preventing cancer formation. Foods ich anti-infammatory substances turmeric Pulses, Cruciferous vegetables citrus fruits

Home remedy for chronic inflammation half teaspoon of turmeric powder in 1 teaspoon of honey and a pinch of Pepper.

who was being treated for breast inflammation 2 teaspoon cancer when she developed skin- of turmeric powder in 1 related problems after treatment. teaspoon of honey and a she had an embarrassing itching pinch of Pepper on the head and neck. Her CBC (complete blood Count) normal but the ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate: a nonspecife measure ofin Aammation) over the past six months bad remained high. Her treating doctor had prescribed anti-histamine to be taken whenever the symptoms were severe. Over dinner One evening the discussion shifted to home remedies for chronic infammation. I mentioned having read about turmeric, boney, and black Pepper working Wonders Such conditions. She took it for twenty days then rang say her itching had subsided without the anti- histamine. month later her FSR had dropped by 30 Per

Turmeric is a rhizomatous berbaceous Perennial plant belonging the singer family. People say that turmeric Powder adds favour to food and years to your life. Indian foods invariably have significant amounts of this spice. In South Asia it is used in cooking almost all types of vegetables, lentils, rice and meats. Turmeric interferes with che cen signalling pathway stopping cells from into tumours, suppressing their further growth and PIOgressing their ability to spread locally. The molecule responsible for this anti-cancer effect is curcumin. Laboratory evidence suggests that it inhibits the growth of tun urs of the colon, breast, stomach and ovary.51

The main mechanisms of turmeric's anti-tumour effects are its powerful anti-inflammatory action, prevention of new blood vessel formation, forcing cancer cells to self- destruct, and enhancing the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs when administered. This is responsible for the lower rate Of cancers of the colon, breast, and kidney among Indians when compared to the West, despite the greater exposure to uncontrolled environmental carcinogens in India.52 Black pepper is added for better absorption of curcumin from the diet. Black pepper contains piperine, which enhances the bio-availability of nutrients absorbed by the body. Piperine increases the bio-availability of curcumin almost twenty- fold.

Citrus fruits like oranges, grapefruit, lemons and sweet Le contain anti-inflammatory aavonoids. These are Potent detoxifiers of carcinogens in the liver. The largest amounts of flavonoids are present in the peel of the citrus fruit.

Foods with Antioxidant Effects

These include tea, pulses, spices, cruciferous vegetables, garlic, berries, tomatoes, grapes, peanuts and grain. Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress, which is a disturbance in the balance between the production of reactive Oxygen species and the body's antioxidant defence. Reactive Oxygen species are free radicals that contain one or more unpaired electrons, because of which they are highly unstable (or 'reactive”). In order stabilize themselves, they attempt to steal electrons from other molecules, leading to injury of cellular components such as DNA, proteins lipids. Antioxidants, conversely, molecules that are capable of donating electrons to the free radicals without being destabilized themselves. An imbalance between Oxidants and antioxidants is the underlying basis Of Oxidative to O а се StresS.Many arise due oxidative stress, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's, gene mutations, cancer, cardiovascular disorders and inflammatory diseases.

Teas of a11 types, produced from the Camellia sinensis plant, rich in Polyphenols-a class of antioxidants that Scavenge for ceuls damaged by free radicals in the body and detoxify them. These are ten times more Potent than antioxidants found an Y other fruits or vegetables. Although there are iced teas and instant ready-to-drink teas, it is the brewed hot tea (green, black or Oolong tea) that has the higher concentration of Polyphenols, while decaffeinated has lower levels.

In India, tea is a staple. It is mainly drunk hot. It is believed that three CUPS Of tea neutralizes free radicals, while three to five cups a day stop the growth Of certain cancers, particularly, breast and Prostate cancers. Increased Sugar Consumption associated with tea-drinking can be avoided with unsweetened tea.

In animal experiments, antioxidants induce death cells and block tissue invasion by cancer cells. They hinder cancer's growth, prevent new blood vessel formation (necessary for tumour Progression), protect the skin against damage by UV light, and modulate the immune System. Laboratory tests using catechin- antioxidant found in tea-have substantially slowed tumour cells of Kidney, breast, prostate, and skin cancers as well as leukaemia. When green tea is combined with radiotherapy the effect of treatment is enhanced in brain tumours.

Spices are a ubiquitous ingredient of Indian food. The variation the ingredients used is responsible for the difference in taste in every home. In India, there is no such thing as curry Powder a legacy that the British carried back with them, which is still available in England. In fact, a traditional Indian home it is not unusual for the spices be freshly ground or Pounded every morning, according TO to the requirements for the day. Generally, there are no premixed masalas”. The rationale behind the use of basic spices is to use the Combinationbest suited for your palate. Also, Prior mixing of Spices may cause some interaction between them, Changing the taste and causing loss of favour.

Allspice or Laba chini also known as Jamaica pepper, gives the flavours of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves although it is a single Spice. It is used in making and desserts. has anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-cancer and analgesic properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acid and catechins.

Basil, originally native Iran and India, has antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-mutagenic Properties due components like linalool, cineole, estragole and eugenol.

Cardamom is a common ingredient of Indian COoking. It antioxidant properties.

Coriander is native to Southern Europe, North Africa and South Asia. Although all parts of the plant are edible, its fresh leaves and dried seeds are frequently used in cooking. It is a common ingredient in many foods throughout the world. One of its principal constituents is linalool, a Potent antioxidant.

Cumia is native to the Eastern Mediterranean 2 region and India. Thymoquiaoae (TQ) is its active ingredient which exhibits antioxidants anti-microbial and anti-infan natory properties. TQ is effective in cancers of bone, ovary, colon, breast, leukaemia and pancreas.

Whole grains: Grains have been a part of the human diet for thousands of years. Rice originated in India. To begin with it was eaten in the wild form but, Somewhere, Over time it evolved into the more presentable, polished and fragrant version which makes for the exquisite Presentation and taste of pula0s and biryani. However, nutritionally rice lacks many vitamins, minerals and fibres. All the nutrients lost in the process of milling, along with the busk, bran and OOST are seTODOS-

CANCER, Refined four ente ered our diet similarly. It is rich in simple carbohydrates with no fibre or vitamins, and is associated with heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Apart from wheat and rice, which are generally CONSUMed more in urban areas, grains like bajra, jowar, ragi, buckwheat, corn and barley rural India. are commoner in has three Whole grain Components: bran, Whole grain serm and endosperm and uapolished rice provide the most health benefits. Though the use of multigrain four has gained popularity, eating flour from a single whole grain at a time, and cycling through a variety of individual grain Aours, possibly provides the goodness of all the different varieties of grain -besides being easier on the digestive system.

Epidemiological studies have e fou und whole grains to be protective against some cancers, especially in gastrointestinal cancers and hormone-dependant cancers, including breast and Prostate cancers.53 Whole grains are a rich Source of carbohydrates, Proteins, fibres, antioxidants, trade minerals, Phenolic compounds and vitamins. The phenolic compounds are antioxidants having a cancer-preventive role. Whole grains have a significant amount of phytoestrogens that are considered protective in hormone-dependent cancers. Additionally, grains are rich in obre and Contain fermentable carbohydrates that produce SOFA- a source of energy and protection for cells lining the Colon.

Foods that Stirrulate the Immune System

Many types of foods stimulate the immune system to function better, thereby improving the internal defence mechanisms of the body (immune surveillance) and checking the mutated abnormal cells from taking root. Mutations Occur due several reasons like injuries caused by toxins, Oxidative Stress, chemicals or radiation. The strongest argument in favour of immune surveillance is the increased frequency Of developing immune-deficient individuals. A weakened immune SYStem promotes cancer. becomes imperative TO strengthen immunity therefore to Exercise and a balanced diet act beat the bOosters. Foods that stimulate the immune system are immunity garlic, mushrooms, Hsh and dairy products.

Mushrooms belong to the fungus family. edible mushrooms include shiitake kawaratake, maitake and cordyceps. They have cancer fighting ingredients, as do, lesser extent, the common button mushrooms. Mushrooms have been staple foods in China, Japan and Korea for many centuries and their consumption in these cultures has been associated with disease prevention and treatment, besides longevity. They contain a molecule called lentinan which, along with other Polysaccharides present in these fungi, stimulates the immune system directly. Mushrooms have also been found to be anti-oxidant, anti-diabetes, anti- cancer, anti-allergic and anti-microbial.54

Evidence from the same study suggests that patients with Colon who ate mushrooms during and after chemotherapy, lived longer and had a better quality of life. This was true for ovarian, gastric, colon, breast and lung cancer. Irials Conducted using the nost potent supportive agents extracted from mushrooms showed distinct role in cancer prevention and cancer treatment. Mushrooms Compliment not only chemotherapy but also radiotherapy by countering the side-effects commonly seen in these treatments, such as nausea, bone marrow suppression and anaemia. Some mushroom extracts have been combined with anti-cancer drugs and work in synergy as effective tools in the treatment of drug-resistant cancers.56 A WHO report suggests developed do that the are being new drugs that not necessarily eradicate tumours but when combined with other agents may turn fatal cancers into manageable chronic illnesses.57

Fish of rich vitamins proteins, Cancer immune- 55 ace SOUrce chain omega-3. Long chain omega-3 is a powerful anti- inflammatory substance. Omega-3 helps restore the length of the telomeres of chromosomes, a property that increases longevity. Vitamin A in oily fish helps fight cancer. The richest of vitamin are mackerel, herring and salmon. Fish oil reduces the rates of breast, colon and prostate cancers.

Milk, yoghurt, butter and cheese commonly Consumed dairy products. These are rich in saturated fats, proteins, calcium and fat-soluble vitamins. Skimmed milk, low in saturated fats, is better than whole milk. Butter and cheese have vell balanced Omega-3 and are better than margarine. Milk derived from cattle that have been administered hormones improve yields is definitely harmful for humans. Milk that is free from hormones is not associated with an increase in incidence of breast carcinoma in Post-menopausal women.58 Pre-menopausal women with a high intake of low-fat dairy products were also found have reduced risk of breast cancer. 59 The same study found a similarly inverse relationship between breast cancer and calcium and vitamin D (Components of dairy products).

Lactobacillus, the active culture of bacteria in Yogurt helps fortify the immune system. The lactobacilli are a part of the good bacteria normally Present in the gut. Plain yogurt is better than Aavoured products with high sugar content. The regular inclusion of yogurt in the diet increases the internal production of interferona Powerful cytokine used by the immune system against tumour cellsby three times. Yogurt has been shown to activate natural killer cells and it slows the growth of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. It also plays a role in lowering cholesterol levels in the blood.

Foods that Are Directly Anti-Cancer

Some foods act directly on the cancer cells-blocking growth, preventing angiogenesis (the formation Of new blood vessels to feed the growing tumour), promoting them self-destruct, blocking androgenoestrogen even modifying cellular detoxification processes. receptors, spices, pulses, nuts, seeds Many vegetables and fruits Category of foods directly negating the cancer cells.

Cinnamon is a Spice obtained from the bark of a evergreen tree belonging to the Lauraceae family. constituents in Cinnamon include cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, Major and terpinene. Italf a teaspoon of cinnamon powder eaten daily significantly reduces the risk of cancer. It is a natural food preservative and a source of iron and calcium. It reduces growth and prevents new blood vessel formation. The ability of cinnamon extracts to suppress the in-vitro growth of BI. pylori, a recognized risk factor for gastric cancer, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and pancreatic cancer, bas stirred considerable interest in the potential use of this Spice.

Cloves are flower buds of the Eugenia caryophyllata tree. Several bioactive components are found in cloves, including tannins, terpenoids, eugenol, and acetyleugenol. Though native to Indonesia, cloves are used in cuisines throughout the world. Studies conducted in mice suggest its effectiveness, especially in modifying cellular detoxification processes.60

Cayenne peppers and red/green chillies contain capsaicin which is known to destroy prostate cancer in mice.

Saffron is a Spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus, a plant native to Southwest Asia. Saffron contains than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. A carotenoid called crocetin is responsible for its rich golden yellow colour and is the primary cancer-fighting substance.

Pulses a staple food in India. Lentils, chickpeas, beans and and proteins. In Soyaare a great source of fibre fact, they for proteins Sources of are the main vegetarians. Unlike animal protein, they do not contain saturated fats, but they do have hbre. Pulses Contain phytochemicals.

When consumed in adequate quantities, phytochemicals reduce the risk of cancer. Their protective effect is seen in most types of cancers, predominantly due to their anti- inflammatory effects. Epidemiological data supports this link, but more clinical studies are required. The anti-cancer effect is attributed to its various components like inositol and pentakisphosphate which block tumour growth and enhance the effects of other treatment. According to one study, eating beans three times a week reduces the risk of colon polyps (pre-cancerous lesions) by one-third. 61 Both fibre and antioxidants in beans are responsible for the anti- cancer effect.

For soya and soya supplements, opinions diverge with respect to breast cancer—from being helpful, to having no effect, to being downright harmful. Soya foods have isoflavones which are plant-based, weak oestrogen-like compounds. Breast cancer is an oestrogen-driven tumour. Oestrogen promotes the development, growth and spread of the disease. Therefore, opinions differ on the use of soya products.

Phytoestrogens are plant-based compounds that can activate oestrogen receptors in the body. They are endocrine- disruptive (they interfere in endocrine functions). Therefore, they can either reduce oestrogen activity by blocking the individual's more potent oestrogens from binding to the receptor or lead to increased oestrogen activity by activating the receptors.62 Oestrogens are a family of hormones, some are weak, like oestrone, while others are strong, like oestradiol. Plant oestrogens, on the other hand, are far weaker than the oestrogens naturally occurring in women, but they can still block the receptors effectively, preventing oestradiol from getting attached. Phytoestrogens are much weaker than the oestrogens present in our body. They block the oestrogen receptors on the cancer cell and slow the growth of hormone-driven cancers.

Proponents of soya products support this view. The jury is still out on the role of soya products in breast cancer. But some studies suggest the use of soya products as a natural alternative to oestrogenic drugs to relieve symptoms of menopause.63 However this use is controversial as the risk outweighs the benefits. If soya products are consumed throughout one's life, they possibly yield greater benefits than when one's intake starts at menopause. It is also suggested that there may be a difference in the impact of these isoflavones in different racial groups.

Nuts and seeds are a great source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats and fibre. Opinions differ on the effectiveness of each nut, therefore the best strategy is eating a combination daily. Almonds, walnuts and pecans lower cholesterol and help in fighting cancer. Cashews are rich in tryptophan which works as an anti-depressant. Flax seeds are a good source of omega-3, even better than fish oil. Apricot seeds are bitter, but contain B17, which may have strong anti- cancer properties.

Fruits and vegetables, specifically cruciferous vegetables or members of the cabbage family including cauliflowers, cabbages, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collard greens (haak), bok choy, radishes, and turnips have a promising role in prostate and colon cancer. Their modes of action are multiple: they help protect cells from DNA damage, deactivate carcinogens, have anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects, and prevent angiogenesis. These vegetables contain glucosinolates which are broken down into a number of chemicals that have anti-cancer properties. Some of these are anti-androgens, which prevent proliferation of prostate cancer cells, their consumption being associated with lower cancer rates. Others affect oestrogen metabolism and promote cell death in breast, uterus and colon cancers. Animal experiments on mice grafted with human prostate carcinoma have shown tumours shrinking to half their size within one month in animals fed these vegetables. 64 mice genetically engineered to develop inherent colon polyps at high risk of evolving into cancer, developed half as many polyps as expected when fed sulforaphane—an antioxidant released while chewing cruciferous vegetables. The protective sulforaphane is released when the vegetables are cut and chewed. Stir fried or raw in salads is the most effective way to eat them. Broccoli is the most abundant in antioxidants it boosts the body's cancer protective enzymes, and flushes out cancer-causing chemicals.

Carrots, apricots, peppers and pumpkins contain anti- cancer carotenoids like beta-carotene. This is easily converted to vitamin A when required by the body. Raw carrots are rich in pectin which helps healthy gut bacteria to thrive.

Ginger is an aromatic rhizome native to China which has been used as a medicinal plant for many centuries. Its anti-cancer properties are due to many polyphenolic compounds that it contains. Ginger is used along with garlic in cooking many Indian vegetables and meats. It works directly on cancer cells, causing apoptosis (or cell death) induced from within the cells. The main chemo-sensitizing effects of ginger are in ovarian cancers. It selectively kills ovarian cancer cells that have acquired resistance to standard chemotherapy. It destroys cancer cells through two distinct cell death pathways-apoptosis (programmed cell death) and autophagy (self-enzymatic digestion).

Garlic prevents the formation of nitrosamines, a carcinogen formed in the stomach. Food preservatives like nitrates are converted into this carcinogen. Foods rich in garlic reduce the risk of colon cancer in women when compared to those who ate no garlic. 65 Garlic can be eaten crushed or chopped, which helps release the active substances. Garlic contains selenium-, tryptophan- and sulphur-based active agents that attack cancer cells and prevent them from multiplying. Tomatoes are used extensively in Indian foods. They are eaten raw in salads, used to garnish lentils, for enhancing the flavours of vegetables and in meats. Tomatoes are a rich source of lycopene, a carotenoid responsible for its red colour and which has been found to stop the growth of the cells of endometrial cancer. Other cancers where it has been found to be effective are those of the lung, prostate and stomach. Raw tomatoes have less lycopene, and cooking them provides greater benefits as heating releases increasing amounts of this compound-making more available for absorption.

Berries of all types—blueberries, blackberries, straw- berries, and raspberries—are packed with phytochemicals with cancer-fighting properties. In particular, they have high concentrations of phytochemicals called ellagic acid. They are also rich in vitamins C and E, manganese and fibre. Ellagic acid is present in the seeds and people who consume food rich in this anti-cancer compound are three times less likely to develop cancer.66 They slow the growth of pre-malignant cells and prevent angiogenesis—an essential prerequisite for tumour nourishment, growth and spread. Berries fight colon, oesophageal, oral and skin cancers.

Chlorophyll is the pigment found in green plants which is used to produce food in the presence of sunlight and carbon dioxide. Animal experiments suggest that chlorophyll has a unique anti-cancer property-detoxifying carcinogens like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (generated by incomplete combustion of fuels), aflatoxin (peanuts and poorly stored grain) and heterocyclic amines (grilled meats) in the food. The chlorophyll binds to the carcinogens, thereby reducing its bioavailability. The beneficial effects of eating dark green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, wheat grass and lettuce is to ensure that the carcinogens remain unabsorbed and are readily excreted by the body. Apart from this, there are other health benefits provided by these green vegetables—fibre, vitamins and minerals.

It is amazing how we have plundered and destroyed our natural environment. We have destroyed nature's cover by felling trees. We have over-populated her with ourselves, at the expense of her other creatures. We have overfished her seas. We have tried to destroy her ozone layer and polluted her atmosphere. And yet, the earth and nature have stood steadfast in our hour of need, through sickness and cancer she has tried, like a true mother, to provide all the ingredients that may help us heal.

Three Essentials for Good Health
  • Balanced diet
  • Regular exercise
  • Weight control
AN IDEAL DAILY DIET
  • 2 12 cups of fruit and vegetables each day, including citrus fruit, dark green and yellow vegetables.
  • Limit the intake of alcohol
  • deep-fried foods.
  • Avoid processed food, pickles, Indian sweets and
  • Choose low-fat dairy products.
  • Limit the intake of meats to thrice a week.
  • High fibre food like whole grain bread and cereal.
  • Preferably bake, braise or stir-fry meals to decrease the amount of fat per meal.