Prostate cancer cells can extend by breaking away from a prostate tumor. They can spread through blood vessels or lymph nodes to impact other parts of the living body.
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Growing in the prostate could be Benign (not cancer) or Malignant (cancer).
Benign growths (like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH):
- Are uncommon a threat to life
- Not to invade the tissues around them
- Don't travel to other parts of the body
- Can be removed and can rise back very steady (but usually don't grow back)
Malignant growths (prostate cancer):
- May occasionally be a threat to life
- Can travel to surrounding organs and tissues (such as the bladder or rectum)
- Can travel (metastasize) to other parts of the body (like lymph nodes or bone)
- Frequently could be removed but sometimes come back
Prostate cancer cells can extend by breaking away from a prostate tumor. They can spread through blood vessels or lymph nodes to impact other parts of the living body. After spreading, cancer cells may contact to other tissues and rise to form new tumors,doing damage where they reach.
When prostate cancer extends from its original place to other part of the body, the new tumor has the same type of abnormal cells and the name matches as the primary (original) tumor. For example, if prostate cancer travels to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are normally prostate cancer cells. The disease is metastatic prostate cancer but not bone cancer. For that reason, it's known as prostate cancer in bone.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
In its initial stages, prostate cancer generally has no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they can be same those of an extended prostate or BPH. Prostate cancer can also cause symptoms not related to BPH. If you face urinary problems, talk with your healthcare provider about the same.
Symptoms of prostate cancer can be:
- slight pain in the lower pelvic area
- Non Regular urinating
- Problem in urinating, pain, burning, or weak urine flow
- Blood in the urine (Hematuria)
- Burning ejaculation
- Ache in the lower back, hips or upper thighs
- Loss of appetite
-Reduce of weight
- Bone ache
Screening of Prostate Cancer
"Screening" means testing for a disease even if you are not facing any symptoms. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test and digital rectal examination (DRE) are two primary tests that can be run to screen for prostate cancer. Both are used to detect cancer early stage. However, above tests are not precise. Abnormal test reports with either test may be due to amiable prostatic enlargement (BPH) or infection, instead of cancer.
The two main types of screenings are:
1) PSA Blood Test
The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test is first way to screen for prostate cancer. This blood test compute the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a protein produce only by the prostate and prostate cancers. The test can be taken in a lab, hospital or healthcare provider's office.
Very small PSA is caught in the blood of a man with a healthy prostate. A less PSA is a sign of prostate health. A fast growth in PSA may be a sign that something is not good. Prostate cancer is the most major cause of a high PSA result. Another reason for a high PSA can be benign (non-cancer) extension of the prostate. Prostatitis, burning of the prostate, can also cause high PSA results.
A growth in PSA level does not inform us the type of cancer cells present. The rise informs us that cancer may be there.
2) DRE - Digital Rectal Examination
The digital rectal examination (DRE) helps your doctor to catch prostate problems. For this exam, the healthcare provider inserts a lubricated gloved finger into the rectum. The man either bends over or lies curled on his side on a table depends on the comfort. During this test, the doctor sees for an unusual shape or thickness to the prostate. DRE is safe and simple. But the DRE by itself cannot detect early stage in cancer. It must be done with a PSA test.
Who can undergo Screening ?
Screening is recommended if you are a man:
- Between 55–69 years old
- Having a family history of prostate cancer
How is Prostate Cancer Graded and Staged ?
Grading (with the Gleason Score) and staging defines the progress of cancer and whether it has grown:
When prostate cancer cells are captured in tissue from the deep biopsies, the pathologist "grades" it. The grade is a compute of how quickly the cells are growing and spread (how aggressive it is).
The most popular grading system is known as the Gleason grading system. With this system, each tissue piece is listed in a grade between three (3) and five (5). Few years ago, we marked scores of one (1) and two (2). A grade of lower than three (3) means the tissue is about to normal. A grade of three (3) tells a slow growth in tumor. A high grade of five (5) tells highly aggressive, prostate cancer is at high risk.
The Gleason system then develops a "score" by combing the two most common grades captured in biopsy test samples. For example, a score of grades 3 + 3 = 6 tells a slow growth in cancer. The highest score of grades 5 + 5 = 10 means that cancer is there and extremely hostile.
The Gleason score will assist your doctor to know if the cancer is as a low-, intermediate- or high-risk disease. Generally, Gleason scores of 6 are termed as low risk cancers. Gleason scores of around 7 are termed as intermediate/mid-level cancers. Gleason scores of 8 and above are termed as high-risk cancers.
If you have passed with prostate cancer, ask about your Gleason score and how it impacts your treatment advices.
Tumor stage is other measured. Staging tells the location of cancer within the prostate, how agressive it is, and if it has travelled to other parts of the body. One could have low stage cancer that is very high risk. Staging the cancer is take care by DRE and special imaging studies.
The mechanism used for tumor staging is the TNM system. TNM stands for Tumor, Nodes and Metastasis. The "T" stage is searched by DRE and other imaging tests such as an ultrasound, CT scan, MRI or bone scan. The imaging tests tells you about if and where the cancer has spread, for example: to lymph nodes or bone.
These staging imaging tests are commonly done for men having a Gleason grade of 7 or higher and a PSA more than 10. Sometimes shown images are needed to catch the changes seen on the bone scan.
What Are The Survival Rates For Prostate Cancer ?
Many men with prostate cancer would not die from it; they will die from some other reasons. For men who are diagnosed, it is better if it is caught in its initial stages.
Survival rates for men with prostate cancer have improved in the recent years, thanks to precise screening and treatment options. Today, 99% of men having prostate cancer can live for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Many men having treatment are cured and healthy. Most prostate cancer is slow-growing and takes many years to aggravate. One out of three men will survive after five years, even if the cancer has travelled to other parts of the living body.